Inspecting Task-Induced Involvement from the Perspective of Sociocultural Theory

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 University of Tehran

2 Faculty of English Language and Literature Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Grounded in sociocultural theory (SCT), this study explored whether the hypothesized difference in task-induced involvement could affect the actual realization of evaluation, one of the cognitive dimensions of the Involvement Load Hypothesis (ILH). A group of 24 Iranian EFL learners participated in the study. They were paired up to write a composition including ten unknown words in the first session and then completed a cloze task with another set of ten new words in the second one. Collaborative dialogues in both sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and micro-genetically analyzed to trace how the value of hypothesized evaluation could affect the manifestation of evaluation during collaborative dialogues. In line with the tenets of ILH, the results of the micro-genetic analysis demonstrated that using target words in the composition task could induce a higher degree of evaluation than using them in the cloze task. In light of the findings, researchers are suggested to look at issues from different standpoints rather than restricting themselves to one single theoretical perspective.

Keywords


Al-Hadlaq, M. S. (2003). Retention of words learned incidentally by Saudi EFL learners through working on vocabulary learning tasks constructed to activate varying depths of processing. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Indiana: Ball State University.

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (2nd Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R., & Barkhuizen, G. P. (2005). Analyzing learner language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Folse, K. S. (2006). The effect of type of written exercise on l2 vocabulary retention. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 273-293.

Foster, P., & Ohta, A. S. (2005). Negotiation for meaning and peer assistance in second language classrooms. Applied Linguistics, 26(3), 402 -430.

Gutiérrez, A. G. (2008). Micro-genesis, method, and object: A study of collaborative activity in Spanish as a foreign language classroom. Applied Linguistics, 29(1), 120-148.

Hu, H. & Nassaji, H. (2016). Effective vocabulary learning tasks: Involvement load hypothesis versus technique feature analysis. System, 56, 28-39.

Hulstijn, J. H., & Laufer, B. (2001). Some empirical evidence for the involvement load hypothesis in vocabulary acquisition. Language learning, 51(3), 539–558.

Keating, G. (2008). Task effectiveness and word learning in a second language: the involvement load hypothesis on trial. Language Teaching Research, 12 (3), 365-386.

Kim, Y. (2008). The role of task‐induced involvement and learner proficiency in L2 vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning, 58, 285–325.

Lantolf, J. P. (1996). SLA theory building: “Letting all the flowers bloom!” Language Learning, 46, 713–749

Lantolf, J. P. (2000). Sociocultural theory and second language learning (1st Ed.). Oxford University Press, USA.

Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne. S. L. (2007). Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition. In B. van Patten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (pp. 201-224). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. 

Laufer, B., & Hulstijn, J. (2001). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: The construct of task-induced involvement. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 1–26.

Maftoon, P. & M. Sharifi Haratmeh. (2012). The relative effectiveness of input and output-oriented tasks with different involvement loads on the receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL learners. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills (JTLS), 4 (2), 27-52.

Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning Vocabulary in another Language (1 st Ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Ohta, A. S. (2001). Second language acquisition processes in the classroom learning Japanese. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Pathinathan, S. (2012). Intragroup Conflicts during Collaborative Writing in an ESL/EFL Preparatory Programme. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 1(7), 8-18.

Qi, D., & Lapkin, S. (2001) Exploring the role of noticing in a three-stage second language writing task. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10 (4), 277–303.

Storch, N. (2008). Metatalk in a pair work activity: Level of engagement and implications for language development. Language Awareness, 17, 95-114.

Storch, N. (2011). Collaborative writing in L2 contexts: Processes, outcomes, and future directions. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 275–288.

Swain, M. (2000). The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue. In J. Lantolf (Eds.) Sociocultural theory and second language learning (pp. 97-114). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swain, M. (2006). Languaging, agency, and collaboration in advanced language proficiency. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Advanced language learning: The contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky (pp. 95-108). London: Continuum.

Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (1998). Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French immersion students working together. The Modern Language Journal, 82(3), 320-337.

Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (2007). The distributed nature of second language learning: Neil's perspective. In S. Fotos and H. Nassaji (Eds.) Form-focused instruction and teacher education: Studies in honor of Rod Ellis (pp. 73-86). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tocalli-Beller, A. (2003). Cognitive conflict, disagreement, and repetition in collaborative groups: Affective and social dimensions from an insider’s perspective. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 60(2), 143–71.

Tocalli-Beller, A., & Swain, M. (2005). Reformulation: The cognitive conflict and L2 learning it generates — International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15(1), 5–28.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes (14th  Ed.). Harvard University Press.

Wesche, M., & Paribakht, T. S. (1996). Assessing second Language vocabulary knowledge: Depth versus breadth. Canadian Modern Language Review, 53(1), 13–40.

Yaqubi, B., Rayati, R. A., & Allemzade Gorgi, N. (2012). The involvement load hypothesis and vocabulary learning: The effect of task types and involvement index on L2 vocabulary acquisition. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 2(1), 145–163.

Yong M. F. (2010). Collaborative writing features. RELC Journal, 41(1), 18-30.