Process-oriented Listening Instruction: A study of Iranian EFL Teachers’ Stated and Actual Practices

Document Type: Research Paper


University of Tabriz


Research on teacher cognition concerning listening instruction has not been sufficiently touched upon. The present case study aimed to investigate Iranian EFL teachers' stated practices, their perceptions of how effective those practices are, and their actual classroom practices of two casual process-oriented listening instructional approaches namely, strategy-based instruction (SBI) and metacognitive instruction (MCI). To this end, a mixed methods design was utilized. Five experienced EFL teachers were required to be observed and to fill a self-report questionnaire. The findings from the questionnaire revealed teachers' relative but insufficient use of the two process-oriented approaches. Regarding the effectiveness of the process-oriented approaches, the majority of the techniques were perceived by the teachers as effective. Also, the result of the observation showed that process-oriented approaches were conspicuously absent in the teachers' actual classroom practices. Finally, pedagogical implications for EFL teachers, teacher educators, and material developers concerning how best to teach listening are discussed.


Ableeva, R., & Stranks, J. (2013). Listening to another language–research and materials. In B, Tomlinson (Ed.), Applied linguistics and materials development (pp. 199-211). London: Bloomsbury.
Cross, J. D. (2009). Effects of listening strategy instruction on news videotext comprehension. Language Teaching Research, 13(2), 151-176.
Cross, J., & Vandergrift, L. (2015). Guidelines for designing and conducting L2 listening studies. ELT Journal, 69(1), 86-89.
Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, Qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Field, J (2008). Listening in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem-solving. In L. B.
Resnick (Ed.), The Nature of Intelligence (pp. 231-235). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Flavell, J. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new era of cognitive developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906– 911.
Flowerdew, J., & Miller, L. (2005). Second language listening: Theory and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goh, C. (1997). Metacognitive awareness and second language listeners. ELT Journal, 51(4), 361-369.
Goh, C. (2008). Metacognitive instruction for second language listening development theory, practice and research implications. RELC Journal, 39(2), 188-213.
Goh, C. (2010). Listening as process: learning activities for self-appraisal and self-regulation. In N. Harwood (Ed.), English language teaching materials: Theory and practice (pp. 179-206). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goh, C., & Taib, Y. (2006). Metacognitive instruction in listening for young learners. ELT Journal, 60(3), 222-232.
Graham, S., & Macaro, E. (2008). Strategy instruction in listening for lower intermediate learners of French. Language Learning, 58(4), 747–783.
Graham, S., Santos, D., & Vanderplank, R. (2008). Listening comprehension and strategy use: A longitudinal exploration. System, 36(1), 52–68.
Graham, S., Santos, D., & Vanderplank, R. (2011). Exploring the relationship between listening development and strategy use. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 435–456.
Graham, S., Santos, D., & Francis-Brophy, E. (2014). Teacher beliefs about listening in a foreign language. Teaching and Teacher Education, 40, 44-60.
Graham, S. (2017). Research into practice: Listening strategies in an instructed classroom setting. Language Teaching, 50(1), 107-119.
Latifi, M., Tavakoli, M., & Dabaghi, A. (2014). The effect of Metacognitive Instruction on improving listening comprehension ability of Intermediate EFL Learners. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, 3(6), 67-78.
Lazaraton, A., & Ishihara, N. (2005). Understanding Second Language Teacher Practice Using Microanalysis and Self‐Reflection: A Collaborative Case Study. The Modern Language Journal, 89(4), 529-542.
Liao, C. Y. W., & Yeldham, M. (2015). Taiwanese high school EFL teachers’ perceptions of their listening instruction. The Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 92-101.
Loughran, J., & Berry, A. (2005). Modelling by teacher educators. Teaching and teacher education, 21(2), 193-203.
Lynch T. and Mendelsohn D. (2002) ‘Listening’. In N. Schmitt (Ed.), An Introduction to Applied Linguistics (pp. 193-210). London: Arnold.
Mareschal, C. (2007). Student perceptions of a self-regulatory approach to second language listening comprehension development. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Ottawa, Canada.
Mendelsohn, D. (1994). Learning to listen. San Diego, CA: Dominie Press.
Mendelsohn, D. (2006). Learning how to listen using learning strategies. In E. Uso-Juan & A. Martinez-Flor (Eds.), Current trends in the development and teaching of the four language skills (pp. 75–89). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
O'Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies for second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (1990). How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. In B. F. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction (pp. 15–51). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rahimi, M., & Katal, M. (2013). The impact of metacognitive instruction on EFL learners’ listening comprehension and oral language proficiency. Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 5(2), 69-90.
Rost, M. (2002). Teaching and researching listening. UK: Longman.
Sebina, B., & Arua, A. E. (2014). From Perception and Knowledge to
Classroom Practice: Teaching Listening Comprehension to Setswana Speakers of English in Junior Schools in Botswana. International Journal of Listening, 28, 1-18.
Siegel, J. (2013). Exploring L2 listening instruction: examinations of practice. ELT Journal, 68(1), 22-30.
Tsui, A. B.M. (2003). Understanding Expertise in Teaching. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Vandergrift, L. (2003). Orchestrating strategy use: Toward a model of the skilled second language listener. Language Learning, 53(3), 463–496.
Vandergrift, L. (2004). Learning to listen or listening to learn? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 3-25.
Vandergrift, L. (2007). Recent developments in second and foreign language listening comprehension research. Language Teaching, 40(3), 191-210.
Vandergrift, L. (2010). Researching listening to applied linguistics. In B.
Paltridge & A. Phakiti (Eds.), Companion to research methods in applied linguistics (pp. 160-173). London: Continuum.
Vandergrift, L., & Tafaghodtari, M. H. (2010). Teaching L2 learners how to listen does make a difference: An empirical study. Language Learning, 60(2), 470-497.
Vandergrift, L., & Goh, C. C. (2012). Teaching and learning second language listening: Metacognition in action. New York: Routledge.
Wenden, A. (1987). Metacognition: An expanded view of the cognitive abilities of L2 learners. Language Learning, 37(4), 573–594.
Yeldham, M., & Gruba, P. (2016). The development of individual learners in an L2 listening strategies course. Language Teaching Research, 20(1), 9-34.
Yeldham, M. (2016). Second Language Listening Instruction:    Comparing a Strategies‐Based Approach With an Interactive, Strategies/Bottom‐Up Skills Approach. TESOL Quarterly, 50(2), 394-420.