INVESTIGATING L2 TEACHERS’ PEDAGOGICAL SUCCESS: THE ROLE OF SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 English Department, Faculty of Literature & Humanities, Shahr-e-Kord University, Saman Road, Shahr-e-Kord.

2 Shahrekord University

Abstract

Teachers can influence the complex process of learning in education, in general, and in second/foreign language (L2) learning in particular. In this light, understanding the factors influencing teachers’ pedagogical success can help L2 teachers achieve more effective teaching. This study then investigated the role of spiritual intelligence (SI) in L2 teachers’ pedagogical success. In so doing, it explored the relationship between teachers’ SI and their L2 pedagogical success assessed by students. Additionally, it examined the extent to which SI could contribute to L2 teachers’ pedagogical success. To these ends, following a sequential mixed-methods design, quantitative data were gathered through Spiritual Intelligence Questionnaire (SIQ) and Characteristics of Successful Teachers’ Questionnaire (CSTQ) from a sample of 130 EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers and 780 EFL learners respectively. Semi-structured interviews with 45 EFL teachers, classroom observation, and syllabus analysis were also used to triangulate the qualitative data. The results of Pearson product correlation coefficients revealed a significant and positive relationship between SI and L2 teachers’ pedagogical success. Also, multiple regression indicated a unique and moderately high contribution of three components of SI (transcendent self-realization, spiritual experiences, and patience) to the teachers ‘pedagogical success. Moreover, follow-up qualitative analysis indicated that the more spiritually intelligent teachers were more responsible, courageous, creative, confident and conscious; they were better at interpersonal relationship and less anxious about pursuing their educational goals. Such findings imply that high level of SI can help L2 teachers promote their success and, in turn, improve their students’ L2 achievement in classroom.

Keywords


Amram, Y. (2007). The seven dimensions of spiritual intelligence: An ecumenical, grounded theory. Paper Presented at the 115th Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association San Francisco, CA.

Amram, Y., & Dryer, C. (2007). The development and preliminary validation of the integrated spiritual intelligence scale (ISIS). Palo Alto, CA: Institute of Transpersonal Psychology Working Paper.

Bhardwaj, A. (2009). Role of personality factors for teaching effectiveness. Pacific Business Review: A Quarterly Journal of Management, 2, 75-80.

Bowell, R. (2004). The seven steps of spiritual intelligence: The practical pursuit of purpose, success, and happiness. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Bradley, C. (2011). An inquiry into relationships between spirituality and language pedagogy (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Temple University, UK.

Brookfield, S. D. (1995). Effective teaching. San Francisco: Jossy-Bass.

Brown, H. D., & Lee, H. (2015). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (4th Ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.

Brown, T., & Marks, J. (1994). Inside teaching. New York: Macmillan.

Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives 8 (1). Retrieved January 1, 2014, from: http://epaa.asu.eud/epaa/v8n1

Emmons, R. A. (1999). The psychology of ultimate concerns: Motivation and spirituality in personality. New York: Guilford Press.

Emmons, R. (2000). Is spirituality and intelligence? Motivation, cognition and the psychology of the ultimate concern. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10(1), 3-26.

Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.

Ghanizadeh, A., & Moafian, F. (2010). The role of EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence in their success. ELT Journal, 64(4), 424-435.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam.  

Harung, H., D. Heaton, & Alexander, C. (1995). A unified theory of leadership: Experiences of higher states of consciousness in world-class leaders. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 16(7), 44-60.

Jacob, B. A. (2007). The challenges of staffing urban schools with teachers. The Future of Children, 17(1), 129-153.

Kaur, M. (2013). Spiritual intelligence of secondary school teachers in relation to their job satisfaction. International Journal of Educational Research and Technology, 4(3), 104-109.

King, D. B. (2008). Rethinking claims of spiritual intelligence: A definition, model, & measure (Unpublished master’s thesis). Trent University, Peterborough, ON, Canada.

Koenig, H. G., McCullough, M., & Larson, D. B. (2000). The handbook of religion and health. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lowman, J. (1996). Characteristics of exemplary teachers. New Direction for Teaching and Learning, 65, 33-40.

Mayer, J. D. (2000). Spiritual intelligence or spiritual consciousness? The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10, 47-56.

Mishra1, P., & Vashist, K. (2014). A review study of spiritual intelligence, stress and well-being of adolescents in 21st century. International Journal of Research in Applied Natural and Social Sciences, 2(4), 11-24.

Moafian, F., & Pishghadam, R. (2009). Construct validation of a questionnaire on characteristics of Successful Iranian EFL teachers. Pazhuhesh-e Zabanhaye Khareji, 54,127-142.

Nasseri I. (2008). Study of concept and components of spiritual intelligence and making a tool to measure it among the students of Allameh Tabatabai University (Unpublished master’s thesis). Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran.

Noble, K.D. (2000). Spiritual intelligence: A new frame of mind. Advanced Development, 9, 1-29.

Noble, K. D. (2001). Riding the windhorse: Spiritual intelligence and the growth of the self. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Palmberg, R. (2008). Multiple intelligence revisited.  Finland: Palmsoft Publications.

Palmer, P. (1999). The grace of great things: Reclaiming the sacred in knowing, teaching, and learning. In S. Glazer (Ed.), The heart of learning: Spirituality in education (pp. 15-32). New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.

Penrose, A., Perr, C., & Ball, I. (2007). Emotional intelligence and teacher self-efficacy: The contribution of teacher status and length of experience. Issues in Educational Research, 17(1), 107-126.

Pishghadam, R., & Moafian, F. (2008). The role of Iranian EFL teachers' multiple intelligences in their success in language teaching at high schools. Pazhuhesh-e- Zabanhaye Khareji, 42, 5-19.

Rezaeyan, M., & Nikoopour, J. (2013). The relationship between reflectivity of foreign language teachers with Iranian students’ achievement.  Journal of Language Sciences & Linguistics, 1(1), 9-20.

Ruiz, R. (2005). Spiritual dimension in educational leadership. Dissertation Abstract International, 66(2), 518.

Ryans, D. G. (1967). Teacher behaviour can be evaluated. In M. Madan, & E. H. Ronald (Eds.), Teaching effectiveness: Its meaning, assessment, and improvement (pp. 43-66). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Educational Technology Publications.

Saldaña, J. (2012): The coding manual for qualitative researchers. London: Sage Publications.

Salicru, S. (2010). The business case for spiritual intelligence (SQ). Melbourne: Business and Performance Psychologist.

Sanders, W. L. (2000). Value-added assessment from student achievement data: Opportunities and hurdles. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 14(4), 329-339.

Shabani, M. B. (2014). An investigation into the role of Iranian EFL teachers’ critical pedagogical views in their educational success. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5(1), 144-153.

Snow D. B. (2001). English teaching as Christian mission. An applied theology. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press.

Suwandee, A. (1995). Students’ perceptions of university instructors’ effective teaching characteristic. SLLT Journal, 5, 6-22.

Vaughan, F. (2002). What is spiritual intelligence? Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 42(2), 16-33.

Wigglesworth, C. (2004). Spiritual intelligence & why it matters. New York: Conscious Pursuits, Inc.

Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar, S., & Lotfi-Goodarzi, F. (2012). What is the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job satisfaction among MA and BA teachers? International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(8), 299-303.

Zohar, D., & Marshall, I. (2000). SQ: Connecting with our spiritual intelligence. New York: Bloomsbury.