Document Type: Research Paper


Department of English, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of using computer-aided argument mapping (CAAM) on the improvement of Iranian learners’ writing self-regulation. To this end, 90 participants out of 127 senior university students in English translation were selected after administrating language proficiency test, as well as an essay writing test for the purpose of homogenizing the learners. Then all participants completed the self-regulation questionnaire in writing skill. As the homogeneity of responses was checked, the participants were randomly categorized into three equal groups as control, experimental 1, and experimental 2. During the course, as the participants in the experimental groups accomplished their writing assignments via CAAM software (in person and in pairs), the participants in the control group did their assignments traditionally. At the end of the course, all participants completed the same writing self-regulation questionnaire again. Using SPSS 21, the one-way ANOVA statistical procedure was utilized to determine the effectiveness of CAAM on writing self-regulation. The findings revealed that using CAAM in writing classes improved learners’ self-regulation. Moreover, the Post-Hoc statistical procedure between two experimental groups showed that collaborative learning in a computer hands-on learning environment led to higher writing self-regulation.


Anderson, A. (2005). Affective influences on the attentional dynamics supporting awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 134, 258–281.

Ausubel, D. (1963). The psychology of meaningful verbal learning. New York: Grune & Stratton.

Bandura, A. (1989). Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of personal agency. The Psychologist: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 2, 411-424.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.

September, 2015 from

Cañas, A. J., Hill, G., Carff, R., Suri, N., Lott, J., Eskridge, T. (2004). CmapTools: A knowledge modeling and sharing environment.In A. J. Cañas, J. D. Novak & F. M. González (Eds.), Concept maps: Theory, methodology, technology. Proceedings of the first international conference on concept mapping (Vol. I, pp. 125-133). Pamplona, Spain: Universidad Pública de Navarra.

Chao, Y. (2011). Students' perceptions of Wiki-based collaborative writing for learners of English as a foreign language. Interactive Learning Environments, 19 (4), 395-411.

Conati, C., Heffernan, N., Mitrovic, A., & Verdejo, M. (2015). Proceedings of the 17th international conference on artificial intelligence in education. Springer-Verlag: Berlin Heidelberg.

Davies, W. M. (2014). Computer-aided argument mapping as a tool for teaching critical thinking. Retrieved June, 2014 from

Davies, W.M. (2009). Computer-assisted argument mapping: A rational approach. High Education, 58, 799-820.

Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Giuliana, D. (2010). Fostering self-regulated learning through ICT. NY: Information Science Reference.

Giuliana, D. (2005). CMC environments supporting self-regulated learning. Retrieved September, 2014 from

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2005). Writing better: Effective strategies for teaching students with learning difficulties. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Harris, K., Graham, S., Mason, L., & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Kanlapan, M., Theresa Carmela, E., & Velasco, J. C. (2009). Constructing a self-regulationscale contextualized in writing. Retrieved October 2012, from

Kessler, G., Bikowski, D., & Boggs, J. (2012). Collaborative writing among second language learners in academic web-based projects. Language Learning and Technology, 16 (1), 91-109.

Kung, S. C. (2002). A framework for successful key-pal programs in language learning. CALL-EJ Online, 3(2). Retrieved December 2013, from

Lai, (2006). The advantages and disadvantages of computer technology in second language acquisition. National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 3(1), Retrieved December 2013, from

Lapan, R. T. (2010). Empowering students to become self-regulated learners.

Retrieved March, 2014, from SRL/Empowering%20students%20to%20become%20self%20regulated%20learners.pdf

Larkin, J.H. , & Simon, H. (1987). Why a diagram is (sometimes) worth ten thousand word. Cognitive Science, 11(1), 65-100.

Lonchamp, J. (2010). Customizable Computer-based Interaction Analysis for Coaching and Self-Regulation in Synchronous CSCL Systems. Educational Technology & Society, 13 (2), 193–205.

Maftoon,P., Birjandi, P., & Pahlavani, P. (2014). The impact of using computer-aided argument mapping on the improvement of writing achievement of Iranian learners of English. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(5), 982-988.

Maftoon,P., & Pahlavani, P. (2014). The impact of using computer-aided argument mappin on Iranian EFL learner’ writing self-efficacy. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 7 (3), 1-12.

Magno,C. (2009). Self-regulation and approaches to learning in English composition writing. TESOL Journal, 1, 1-16.

Manchón, R. M., (2009). Individual differences in foreign language learning: The dynamics of beliefs about L2 writing. RESLA, 22, 245-268.

Marjanovic, O. (1998). Learning and teaching in a synchronous collaborative environment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 15, 129-138.

Mayer, R. E. & Gallini, J. K. (1990). When is an illustration worth ten thousand words? Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 715-726.

McCombs, B. L. (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: A phenomenological view. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd Ed.) (pp. 67-123). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Mezei, G. (2008). Motivation and self-regulated learning: A case study of pre-intermediate and upper-intermediate students. WoPaLP, 2, 79-104.

Novak, J. D., & Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. Cambridge: CUP.

Orhan, F. (2007). Applying self-regulated learning strategies in a blended learninginstruction. World Applied Sciences Journal, 2(4), 390- 398.

Quick Oxford Placement Test (2006). Oxford university press and university of Cambridge local examination syndicate. Retrieved April 2013, from

Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (2010). The role of self-regulated learning in contextual teaching: Principles and practices for teacher preparation. Retrieved December 2013, from 2001 04/0104parwin.html

Pennington, M. (2003). The impact of the computer in second language writing. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Exploring the dynamics of second language writing. (pp. 287-311). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 452-502). New York: Academic Press.

Pintrich, P. R., & DeGroot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33-40.

Rationale (2012). Austhink. Retrieved February 2012, from

Schunk, D. H. (2005). Self-regulated learning: The educational legacy of Paul R. Pintrich. Educational Psychologist, 40, 85-94.

Stahl, G., Koschmann, T., & Suthers, D. (2006). Computer-supported collaborative learning: An historical perspective. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 409-426). Cambridge: CUP.

TOEFL Writing Scoring Guide (2007). Educational testing service. Retrieved October 30, 2012 from

Twardy, C. (2004). Argument maps improve critical thinking. Teaching Philosophy, 27(2), 95-116.

Tseng, W., Dörnyei, Z., & Schmitt, N. (2006). A new approach to assessing strategic learning: The case of self-regulation in vocabulary acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 27(1). 78-102.

Van Gelder, T. J. (2007). Rationale: Making people smarter through argument mapping. Retrieved November 2013, from

Wegerif, R. (1996).Collaborative learning and directive software. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 12, 1, 22-32,

Winne, P. H. (1989). Internal details in self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologists, 30, 173-187.

Wolters, C. (1998). Self-regulated learning and college students’ regulation of motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 224–235.

Wolters, C. (2011). Regulation of motivation: Contextual and social aspects. Teachers College Record, 113(2), 265-283.

Yarling, H. (2011). The perceptions of cooperative learning in computer assisted language learning environments. International Conference on Education and control Engineering (ICECE), Retrieved October 2013, from

Zimmerman, B.J. (1986). Becoming a self-regulated learner: Which are the key subprocesses? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11, 307-313.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(3), 1-23.

Zimmerman, B.J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 82-91.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64-70.

Zimmerman, B.J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 166-183.

Zimmerman,B. & Campillo, M.(2002). Motivating self-regulated problem solvers, in The Nature of Problem Solving, J. E. Davidson and R. J. Sternberg, Eds., New York: Cambridge University Press.

Zimmerman, B. & Kitsantas, A. (2002). Acquiring writing revision and self-regulatory skill through observation and emulation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(4), 660- 668.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 51-59.