Effects of Task-based Academic Listening on High School EFL Students' Listening Comprehension: Does Experiential Learning Style Matter?

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Payame Noor University, Tehran

2 Payame Noor university, Tehran

Abstract

Task-based language teaching (TBLT) has been considered as an effective language teaching methodology. However, its applicability for lower-proficiency learners in EFL contexts has not been adequately justified. Moreover, the possible mediating effect of the experiential learning styles on academic listening TBLT has not been targeted in the literature, a gap that this study attempts to fill. To this end, male pre-intermediate Iranian EFL learners (N=88) in four experiential learning styles (n=22), selected purposefully through the experiential learning style questionnaire, took part in the study. The study utilized a time series design and all participants received the TBLT. To get some insights regarding the learners' attitudes toward the TBLT, the researchers implemented a perception questionnaire at the end of the treatment. The results of a mixed-method ANOVA for within-group difference revealed that the task-based instruction significantly affected pre-intermediate EFL learners’ performance on academic listening tests. A between-group comparison of four experiential learning styles also confirmed that the learners with different learning styles performed similarly on the tests. It was also found that learners had positive attitudes toward such instruction. The results have clear implications for foreign language teaching, teacher training and curriculum design with regard to the selection of appropriate methodology for teaching academic listening.

Keywords


Adams, R. (2009). Recent publications on task-based language teaching: A
review. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19 (3), 339 –355.

Bergsteiner, H., Avery , G. C., & Neumann, R. (2010). Kolb's experiential
learning model: Critique from a modeling perspective. Studies in
Continuing Education
, 2 (1), 2946.

Bhatti, R., & Bart, W. M. (2013). On the effect of learning style on scholastic achievement. Current Issues in Education, 16 (2). Retrieved March 18, 2012, from,                    http://cie.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/cieatasu/article/view/1121

Bozorgian, H. (2012). Metacognitive instruction does improve listening
 comprehension. ISRN Education, 16.

Brown, G. (2008). Selective listening. System, 36 (1), 1021.

Brown, H. D. (2004). Language assessment: Principal and classroom practices. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.

Butler, Y.K. (2011). The implementation of communicative and task-based language teaching in the Asia-Pacific region. Annual Review of
Applied Linguistics
, 31, 3657.

Carless, D. (2007). The suitability of task-based approaches for secondary
schools: Perspectives from Hong Kong. System, 35 (4), 595608.

Carrell, P.L. (2007). Note-taking strategies and their relationship to performance on listening comprehension and communicative assessment tasks (TOEFL Monograph Series No. MS-35). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Carrell, P.L., Dunkel, P.A., & Mollaun, P. (2002). The effects of note-taking,
lecture length and  topic on the listening component of the TOEFL 2000(TOEFL Monograph Series No. MS-23).
Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Should we be using learning styles: What research has to say to practice? Learning Skills and Research Centre, London. Retrieved January 22, 2012, from, http://www.ttrb.ac.uk/attachments/c455e462-95c4-4b0d-8308- bbc5ed1053a7.pdf

Decapua, A., & Wintergerst, A. C. (2005). Assessing and validating a learning styles instrument. System, 33, 116.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner. Mahwah, NJ:
Routledge.

Dunkel, P. (1988). The content of Ll and L2 students' lecture notes and .its
relation to test performance. TESOL Quarterly, 22, 25981.

Dunkel, P., Mishra, S., & Berliner, D. (1989). Effects of note taking, memory, and language proficiency on lecture learning for native and nonnative speakers of English. TESOL Quarterly, 23, 543549.

Duran, G. & Ramaut, G. (2006). Task for absolute beginners and beyond:
Developing and sequencing tasks at basic proficiency levels. In K. Van den Branden (Ed.). Task-based language learning. From theory into practice (pp. 4775). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2012). Language teaching research and language pedagogy.
Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Field, J. (2008). Listening in the language classroom .Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Flowerdew, J. (1994). Research of relevance to second language lecture
comprehension - an overview, In Flowerdew, J. (Ed.). Academic
listening: Research perspectives
(pp. 729). Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.

Goh, C. (2008). Metacognitive instruction for second language listening
development: Theory, practice and research implications. RELC
Journal, 39
(2), 188213.

Kayes, D. C. (2005). Internal validity and reliability of Kolb’s learning style
inventory version 3 (1999). Journal of Business and Psychology,
20
(2), 249257.

Kiany, G.R., Mahdavy, B., & Ghafar Samar, R. (2011). Towards a harmonized foreign language education  program in Iran: National policies and English achievement. Literacy, Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), 2 (3), 462269.

Kiewra, K. A. (1985). Students’ note taking behaviors and the efficacy of
providing the instructors’ notes for review. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 10 (4), 378386.

Kohonen, V. (1992). Experiential language learning: Second language learning as cooperative learner education. In D. Nunan (Ed.). Collaborative language learning and teaching (pp. 3756). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D.A. (2005). The Kolb learning style inventory- Version 3.1 2005 technical specifications. Experience Based Learning Systems, Inc. Case Western Reserve University.

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice- Hall.

Kilickaya, F., & Cokal-Karadas, D. (2009). The effect of note- taking on
university students’ listening comprehension of lectures. Kastamonu
Education Journal, 17
(1), 4756.

Krashen, S.D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York: Longman.

Leaver, B., & Willis, J. (2004). Task-based instruction in foreign language
education
. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Lynch, T. (2011). Academic listening in the 21st century: Reviewing a decade of research. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10 (2), 7988.

McCarthy, M. (2010). Experiential learning theory: From  theory to practice. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 8 (5), 131140.

Norris, J. M. (2009). Task-based teaching and testing. In M. H. Long & C. J.  Doughty (Eds.). The handbook of language teaching (pp. 578 594). Cambridge: Wiley-Blackwell.

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.

Phillips, D. (2001). Longman complete course for the TOEFL test: Preparation for the computer and paper tests. NY: Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc.

Prince, P. (2013). Listening, remembering, writing: Exploring the dictogloss task. Language Teaching Research, 17 (4), 486–500.

Robinson, P. (2011). Task-based language learning: A review of issues.
 Language Learning, 61, 136.

Samuda, V., & Bygate, M. (2008). Tasks in second language learning. New
York: Palgrave Mcmillan.

Siegel, J. (2013). Second language learners' perceptions of listening strategy instruction. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 7 (1), 118.

Skehan, P. (1996). A framework for the implementation of task based Instruction. Applied Linguistics, 17 (1), 3862.

Skehan, P. (2003). Task-based instruction. Language Teaching, 36, 114.

Swan. M. (2005). Legislation by hypothesis: The case of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 26 (3), 376–401.

Wilkins, D. (1976). Notional syllabuses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Willis, D., & Willis, J. (2007). Doing task-based teaching. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

Willis, J. (1996). A framework for task-based learning. Harlow: Longman.