Motivational and Learning Strategies of Iranian EFL Learners Exposed to an E-Learning Program

Authors

1 Assistant Prof. of TEFL

2 Associate Prof. of TEFL

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to expose a group of Iranian students to an e-Learning program and find out the effects of this exposure on their learning and motivation strategies. This study made an attempt to evaluate the degree of strategy use in both traditional and e-Learning modes of learning. Moreover, the effects of the e-Learning program of the participants of the study on learning strategies, motivation and volition regarding sex, age, educational degree and internet literacy were sought. The data for this study were collected from 100 Iranian EFL students (62 females and 38 males) who were exposed to an e-Learning class for a period of two months. The students were mostly mature and educated studying at university or holding a degree. This study used a translated and modified version of the MSLQ (Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire), a volitional questionnaire, a demography questionnaire and a series of interviews with the students and teachers involved in this research. Regarding the theoretical framework of the study, self-regulation was adopted. The data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively to find out the changes the students might undergo moving from conventional mode of learning to e-Learning and get some insights for prospective e-Learning programs in Iran. 

Keywords


Alomyan, H. and Au, W. (2004). Exploration of instructional strategies and individual difference within the context of web-based learning. International Education Journal, 4 (4) 86-112.

Anderton, B. (2006). Using the online course to promote self-regulated learning strategies in pre-service teachers. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 5 (2), 156-171.

Bell, P. (2006). Can factors related to self-regulated learning and epistemological beliefs predict learning achievement in undergraduate asynchronous web-based  courses? Available at .

Bell, P. and Akroyd, D. (2006). Can factors related to self-regulated learning predict learning achievement in undergraduate asynchronous web-based courses? International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 3 (10), 5-19.

Blocher, J. M., Sujo de Montes, L., Willis, E. M. and Tucker, G. (2002). Online learning: Examining the successful student profile. The Journal of Interactive online Learning, 1 (2), 1-19.

Diaz, D. P. and Cartnal, R. B. (1999). Students' learning styles in two classes. College Teaching, 47 (4), 130-136.

Dunigan, B. A. (2003). Motivation and learning strategies of students in distance education. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Southern Mississipi University, U.S.A.

Ergul, H. (2004). Relationship between student characteristics and academic achievement in distance education and application on students of Andalolu University. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, (5), 2.

Garcia, T. (1995). The role of motivational strategies in self-regulated learning. in Pintrich, P.R. (ed.), Understanding self-regulated learning.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Garcia, T. and Pintrich, P. R. (1995). Assessing students motivation and learning strategies for learning questionnaire. in Birenbaum, M. and Dochy, F. (eds.), Alternatives in assessment of achievements, learning processes and prior knowledge. (319-339). Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hargis, J. (2000). The self-regulated learner advantage: Learning science on the internet. Available at <http://unr.edu/homepage/crowther/ejse/hargis .html>. University of North Florida.

Jamison, T.M. (2003). Using motivational systems theory to predict student completion of asynchronous web-based distance education courses. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, University of George Mason, U.S.A.

Kajbaf, M .B., Molavi, H. and Shirazi Tehrani, A. R. (2006). Study of the relationship between motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning strategies, and academic performance among high school students. Available at <http://www.iricss.org/journal/abstract4.html>.

Kanuka, H. (2005). An exploration into facilitating higher levels of learning in a text-based internet learning environment using diverse instructional strategies. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10 (3), 1-33.

Kivinen, K. (2003). Assessing motivation and the use of learning  strategies in secondary school students in three international  schools. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Tampere University, Finland.

Langley, S., Wamback, C., Brothen, T. and Madyun, N. (2004). Academic achievement motivation: Differences among underprepared students taking a PSI general psychology course. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 21(1), 1-21.

Leung, M. and Chan, K. (1998). Gender and elective differences in the Motivated Strategies for Learning of Pre-service teacher education  students in Hong Kong [on-line]. Available at: <http://www.aare.edu.au/98pap/ leu98366.htm>

Lynch, R. (2003). The relationship between academic self-regulation and online distance education. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, U.S.A.

Maupin, D.(2003). A comparison of demographics, motivation, and learning strategies of college students taking traditional campus-based courses and internet-based distance learning courses. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, U.S.A.

McLoughlin, C. and Luca, J. (2004). An investigation of the motivational aspects of peer and self-assessment tasks to enhance teamwork outcomes. Available at <http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/perth04/procs/ mcloughlin.html>.

Miltiadou, M. (1999). Motivational constructs as predictors of success in the online classroom. Available at <http://seamonkey.ed.asu.edu/%7Emcisaac/ emc703/mariosf.html>. Arisona State University.

Moore, M.G. (1990). Recent contribution to the theory of distance education. Open Learning, 1 (2), 10-15.

Muirhead, B. (2006). Doctoral students: Interactivity experiences in online universities. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 3 (10), 29-39.

Ng, C. (2000). Motivational and learning processes of university students in a distance mode of learning: An achievement goal of perspective. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of Australian Association for Research in Education. Sydney, Australia.

Ng, C. (2002). Relations between motivational goals, beliefs, strategy use and learning outcomes among university students in a distance learning mode: A longitudinal study. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of Australian Association for Research in Education. Brisbane, Australia.

Ng,C. (2005). Predictors of self-regulated learning in Malaysian smart schools. International Education Journal, 6 (3), 343-353.

Nokelainen, P., and Ruohotie, P. (2003). Modeling students' motivational profile for learning in vocational higher education. in H. Niemi & p. Rhohotie (eds.), Theoretical understandings for learning in the virtual university (1-206). Saarijavi: Research Center for Vocational Education, University of Tampere.

Patarroyo, Z. (2006). An examination of the learning regime employed on a Digital Media Access course and immediate and proposed strategies for its improvement. College Quarterly, 9 (1),1-8.

Pintrich, P.R. (1989). The dynamic interplay of student motivation and cognition in the collage classroom. in Ames, C. and Maehr, M.L. (eds), Advances in motivation and achievement. Motivation enhancing environments (Vol. 6, 117-160). Greenwich, CT: JAI  Press.

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. in M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (451-502), San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T. and McKeachie, W. J., (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning  questionnaire (MLSQ). University of Michigan.

Richards, J.C. (2003). New interchange / passages: Placement and evaluation package. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J. C. (1998). New interchange: English for international communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ruohotie, P. (2000). Conative constructs in learning. in Pintrich, P. and Ruohotie, P. (eds), Conative constructs and self-regulated learning. Hämeenlinna: Research Centre for Vocational Education.

Schunk, D.H. (1993). Social cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. in Zimmerman, B.J. and Schunk, Dale H. (Eds), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, reasearch and practice. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Schunk, D. H. and Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice. New York: Guildford Press.

Spiros, R. K. (2003). Individual differences in motivation during distance training: The influence of goal orientation and self-efficacy on learning outcomes. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, George Washington University, U.S.A.

Wang, W. (2006). Software supported self-regulated learning strategies in academic setting. Available at <http://fas.sfu.ca/eventitems/wei>.

Weinstein, C.E. and Mayer, R.E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. in Wittrock M. (ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (315-327),  New York: Springer-Verleg.

Wickersham, L. and Dooley, K. (2001). Attrition rate in a swine continuing education course delivered asynchronously. Paper presented at 28th annual national agricultural education research conference, Texas University.

Yam, K.Y. (1998). Motivation and learning strategies of female maladjusted students in Hong Kong. Available at <http://www.cityu.edu.hk/prj/YSNet /pgd/086b.html>.

Zachariah, S. (1995). The effect of multimedia-based instruction on the academic achievement of students studying Economics. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Akron, U.S.A.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: a social-cognitive  perspective. in Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R. and Zeidner, M. (eds.), Handbook of self-regulation, San Diego: Academic Press.

 

Zhang, J., Li, F., Duan, C. and Wu, G. (2000). Research on self-efficacy of distance learning and its influence to learners' attainments. Available at <http://sf.edude.net/hebei/hbgcxy/peixun/met/lwjj/journal/article10/Research-on.htm>. Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.